WATER in the UK - LINKS to articles & websites on our WATER resource - collated by Henry Adams                              
 My web-site HUB page HERE
First a global & European overview:
'How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth', and how much of that is fresh-water
These graphics from the USGS may surprise you - and water is so vital to us!    Comments on this on Treehugger.        Also: The Water Book by Alok Jha

Growing global thirst for energy threatens water supplies - Claire Provost, 21mar14, Global development, The Guardian.

Hardly surprising that big companies such as multinationals want to take control of this resource to sell to the highest bidder. And in Texas this can be the fracking companies not agriculture and drinking water consumers. As Texas and California droughts show, and of course worse droughts in poorer countries even more so, drinking water could become regionally scarcer due to climate change, and the latter will be increased by the very companies that are demanding more of it, then polluting it - fracking companies (and the tar sands industry) for example. Ask yourself - should access to clean drinking water be a human right?

www.right2water state: "
Water and sanitation are a human right! Water is a public good, not a commodity. We invite the European Commission to propose legislation implementing the human right to water and sanitation as recognised by the United Nations, and promoting the provision of water and sanitation as essential public services for all. ..." Do sign up to this EU Citizens' Initiative (ECI). 14jan14 SEQUEL: 'EU citizens force water debate onto agenda'   EurActiv.
NB: 7mar14 UK is out of step with the rest of the world on access to water - Prof David Hall, in The Conversation. Refers to the profit-extraction from water-extraction, the ECI and what the public want, in contrast to UK government's privatized preference, and only the Green Party (in 2014) supporting a return of water to the public sector. "
Private companies in England, however, are now [2014] celebrating their 25th year of lucrative exploitation of their natural monopolies, with most of them now owned by private equity consortia or Asian multinationals. The companies are extracting profits of around £2 billion a year above the cost of a public service funded through low-cost public debt. This means renationalisation would save the average household £83 per year, cutting bills by more than 20%.David hall is visiting professor of Public Services International Research Unit, University of Greenwich.
8sep15 SEQUEL: MEPs in plenary session vote in favour of the ECI, but will the EU Commission listen? And will water be excluded from TTIP and other FTAs and BITs?
Right2water citizens’ initiative/ Commission must act, say MEPs  - EP news. Water services and basic rights - EP backs Citizens' Initiative on Right to Water despite centre-right dissent - The Greens | European Free Alliance.

Governments are being lobbied by big companies to commodify, privatize and marketize the world's basic resources such as water, under the ideological pretence that free markets can resolve the distribution of increasingly/potentially scarce resources such as water, and that private works "better" than public - even for vital services.

Increasingly scarce water resources could increase resource conflicts and the potential for war.
Water wars  a new reality for business and governments Oliver Balch 6oct14  Guardian Sustainable Business.
Example study by my nephew: Nicholas Adams MA thesis: "Crossing the Rubicon: Is Water Scarcity in the Indus River Basin a Threat Multiplier to Existing Sources of Conflict Between India and Pakistan?" link to podcast link 2012.

Why am I now interested in this?

- CLIMATE CHANGE - affects the availability of fresh-water. For example: Australia's precipitation is expected to become even more extreme over time, especially with drought, and also flood (despite this, Australia is world's biggest exporter of coal and Australian gov (in 2016/17) want to open up huge new coal mine). Southern Europe could become drier. California has recently been experiencing increasing drought. Parts of Madagascar are experiencing increasingly persistent drought, making former farmland arid. Droughts can increase conflict and potential for war.
- FRACKING - uses vast quantities of water, produces vast quantities of contaminated waste, threatens to pollute aquifers, ground-water, rivers, ... (my fracking web-page tries to deal with this e.g.
- OVER-ABSTRACTION is damaging and eliminating aquatic habitats (listen to BBC R4's Face the Facts: Sold Down River)
- POLLUTION - e.g. by water companies e.g. by sewerage - is continually happening - mainly because fines are too small in relation to the costs of preventing pollution. True until in March 2017: Thames Water hit with record £20m fine for huge sewage leaks "
Massive fine reflects change in sentencing as previously low penalties failed to deter water firms from polluting England’s rivers and beaches".
- WE ARE BEING RIPPED OFF by water companies (they have a monopoly control over their areas): our money is being siphoned off as big dividends or payouts to wealthy investors and private equity firms (including foreign firms and investors), instead of into improved services, and corporate tax is dodged by risky high debt to equity ratios (e.g. c. 80%), which result in demands for taxpayers to subsidize projects (hey - wasn't privatization supposed to have the benefit of access to private investment?), and risk of potential bank-like bailouts.
'End the Great Water Rip-Off' - petition by George Turner (who wrote 'Money down the drain' - in 'refs/links/news' section below). Renationalise English water - Neil Clark, The Guardian, jan12. Private water companies make over £1bn from 'unnecessarily high prices' - Oliver Wright - Political Editor of The Independent, 13jan16, and referring to this: CETA would lock-in water privatization in England - The Council of Canadians. And see 10sep17 piece in the FT linked to below - which restates the above references, which I'll restate in a nutshell: Your bill payments go via profits to the private equity owners to dividends - i.e. unearned income of wealthy recipients, instead of into capital investments into water infrastructure - which is financed not from the profits but by mounting unsustainable debts. - Sounds like a good example of the worst of neoliberalism - loved by the Tories for the way it sucks up money from us all to their wealthy donors. This has to change!
- CORPORATE CONTROL over water puts profit above public need, and will get increased legal power if TTIP and CETA are implemented:
CETA would lock-in water privatization in England - The Council of Canadians (jan2016), refers to e.g. David 'Hall [Public Services International Research Unit] says "UK is out of step with the rest of the world on access to water" (18mar14), and Holding the Line Against the Corporate Takeover – Stop TTIP - Food & Water Europe: "TTIP, CETA and TISA all pose major threats to many of the victories that civil society has achieved over the decades to make the human right to water a reality and to promote and recover public control over water management. Trade agreements can limit the capacity of local, regional and national governments to decide how to deliver public services, such as water supply and sanitation. They can make privatisation processes iron-clad. Investment protection mechanisms would allow corporations to challenge processes of water remunicipalisation, the powerful wave of local governments taking back public control over water, like in Paris and Berlin.". Also: CETA would hinder water remunicipalization in England 11nov13, The Council of Canadians.

Organisations - some relevant ones:

DEFRA - Water was the responsibility of Owen Paterson from 2012-2014, before that Benyon - when Monbiot used the name "deathra"! (as DEFRA appeared to in effect stand for: DEpartment for FRAternizing with shooting and vested interests).
Environment Agency -  
http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/      @EnvAgency         EA's  Future NW   - that concerns our future water in NW England. Chairman: Lord Chris Smith, Chief Executive: Paul Leinster.
                       'Environment Agency job cuts bigger and quicker than expected' - 25oct13 The ENDS Report

http://www.ofwat.gov.uk/  "Ofwat (The Water Services Regulation Authority) is the economic regulator of the water and sewerage sectors in England and Wales. We are here to make sure that the companies provide household and business consumers with a good quality service and value for money."   Motto:  "Water today, water tomorrow" [or was it  'gone tomorrow'?].
http://www.water.org.uk/  - umbrella organisation for the water companies - "Working on behalf of the Water Industry for a sustainable future". Of benefit to us re fracking: 'Water industry lays down challenge to UK shale gas fracking industry' - Water UK, 17jul13. But later in the summer it appeared to take more of a pro-fracking stance - no doubt due to potential profits to the water companies from selling water for fracking.
Water Companies
- monopolistic, highly-leveraged, high debt to equity ratio (eg c.80%), tax-dodgers, some are owned by Private Equity firms (eg Thames Water & Yorkshire Water, ) - without share-holders, others are on the Stock Exchange with share-holders. Some are foreign-owned, yet UK may be forced to bale them out if they get into difficulties like the banks. Note: 14mar17
Vultures [Macquarie] who left Thames Water with £10bn of debt: Controversial Aussie bank Macquarie sells stake in UK giant - seems to have just escaped the big fine - 22mar17 Thames Water hit with record £20m fine for huge sewage leaks When Thames Water spoke on BBCR4 they of course describe themselves as a "business" not a 'service' or 'public service'. No wonder citizens of Ireland don't want their water service privatised, and are campaigning to stop that happening.
United Utilities     'Water Resources Management Plan   Have your say   Our future plans' - for North West's water
http://www.waterwise.org.uk/  Waterwise  @Waterwise   Promotes "water efficiency by reducing waste, not by restricting use". At least part-funded by the water industry.
http://www.ciwem.co.uk/  @CIWEM  The Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management - Working for the public benefit for a clean, green and sustainable world, CIWEM is the only independent, chartered professional body and registered charity with an integrated approach to environmental, social and cultural issues. 
Consumer Council for Water - interacts with OFWAT re water-pricing for consumers. My present understanding is that prices are set for long periods, and that currently the price is based on inflation plus 0.5% (however I haven't checked this).

FOOD and WATER Europe e.g. this article: Holding the Line Against the Corporate Takeover – Stop TTIP - Food & Water Europe.

US: www.foodandwaterwatch.org  Public Water for All "We help communities resist pressure to sell and outsource their public water systems to private corporations and keep control of this precious resource." &, set up by NOAA & partners: Water Resources Dashboard - U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit.

Some other refs/links/news:

10sep17 Water privatisation looks little more than an organised rip-off -
"Bills are rising to fund massive shareholder payouts" - Jonathan Ford in FT. 'We Own It': "Excellent article from the Financial Times." and quotes: "... Quite why this natural monopoly should not operate through not-for-profit, public interest companies is ever less clear."  In a nutshell: Your bill payments go via profits to the private equity owners to dividends - i.e. unearned income of wealthy recipients, instead of into capital investments into water infrastructure - which is financed not from the profits but by mounting unsustainable debts. - Sounds like a good example of the worst of neoliberalism - loved by the Tories for the way it sucks up money from us all to their wealthy donors. This has to change!

22mar17 is/was #WorldWaterDay. World Water Day: one in four children will live with water scarcity by 2040 -  The Guardian - "Unicef report says climate change and conflict are intensifying risks to children of living without enough water, and that the poorest will suffer most". www.unicef.org/wash/waterandclimate

22mar17 Thames Water hit with record £20m fine for huge sewage leaks - Damian Carrington. Thames Water fined record £20million over sewage leaks - Henley Standard. 

22may17 Global warming is increasing rainfall rates - John Abraham - The Guardian.

26sep16 Canada: Boycott Launched After Nestlé Outbids Drought-Stricken Town to Buy Well for Bottled Water

3may16 Price water or prepare for a thirstier, poorer planet - World Bank - Climate Home - climate change news. I haven't read this, but bear in mind that the World Bank is not to be trusted - it's track record is poor.

15feb16 NASA 4 Billion People at Risk as 'Water Table Dropping All Over the World' - Ecowatch.

22mar16 Coal plants use as much water as 1 billion people and consumption set to double: report - The Guardian - "World Water Day research finds 44% of coal plants, and 45% of planned coal power plants, in areas of water stress"
22mar16 Investigation: Coal plants risk global water shortage - Energydesk.

Fighting over groundwater: water companies v environmentalists 14oct14 Oliver Balch Guardian Sustainable Business. "Environmental groups accuse water companies of over-abstraction, putting wildlife and plants at risk; water companies claim it’s not so simple" "According to the UK Environment Agency, 35% of groundwater bodies are at risk of not achieving good groundwater quantitative status. Many of the most contentious cases relate to habitats that rely on chalk aquifers, found predominantly in southern and eastern England." Water utilities take around 35% of all the UK’s public water requirements from groundwater sources.

NB: There's a Water Bill coming up in this Parliamentary Session (Nov.2013) - maybe that mat be an opportunity for us to push for more consumer say e.g. on abstraction and use of water for fracking?
Water shortages may make fracking impractical, industry says 27nov13 Fiona Harvey  Environment   theguardian.com
Wind in the Willows river 'risks running dry' if new water bill is passed Damian Carrington 25nov13  Environment   The Guardian

Water is too precious a resource to be squandered Richard Benyon 17nov13 Comment is free The Observer via Karen, who tweeted:
Karen Mitchell @MitchMitchlet “Water is too precious a resource to be squandered" says Richard Benyon gu.com/p/3ke7p/tf Xcept when it comes to fracking?
*** 'Environment Agency job cuts bigger and quicker than expected' - 25oct13 The ENDS Report
Environment Agency cuts will have a far-reaching impact on communities  autumn13 Public Leaders Network   Guardian Professional
**  Political pressure is mounting on polluting water companies   Damian Carrington 5aug13  Environment   theguardian.com
**  The water companies and the foul stench of exploitation   Nick Cohen 3aug13  Comment is free   The Observer
***  Revealed  how UK water companies are polluting Britain's rivers and beaches 3aug13 Damian Carrington & Sophie Barnes  Environment   The Observer Joan Walley of EAC Simon Hughes
Petition by George Turner https://www.change.org/en-GB/petitions/end-the-great-water-rip-off
'Money down the drain: getting a better deal for consumers from the water industry' (pdf) - A devastating analysis of water industry by George Turner of the liberal thinktank CentreForum  'Think tank urges water industry shake up'  
***  BBC Radio 4 - Face the Facts, Sold Down River Very useful info here. Eg licences were made half a century ago for "perpetuity" for big amts of water to be potentially taken. - Why should the UK public pay foreign-owned water co.s (e.g. Thames Water) many millions of pounds of compensation to stop them over-abstracting and damaging rivers? (even though they needn't do so) part of that money may go to wealthy ppl in dividends. Benyon is Minister. chalkstreams & Kennet again. "A licensing system designed more than half a century ago means water companies can legally, and easily, extract large quantities of good quality water from water courses to deliver cheaply to the consumer."


Precautionary principle
: a search of the EU Water Framework Directive for the words 'precautionary principle'

establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy
Page 3:
(11) As set out in Article 174 of the Treaty, the Community policy on the environment is to contribute to pursuit of the objectives of preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment, in prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources, and to be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, environmental damage should, as a priority, be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay.
(44) In identifying priority hazardous substances, account should be taken of the precautionary principle, relying in particular on the determination of any potentially adverse effects of the product and on a scientific assessment of the risk.

Water Framework Directive - results of a Google search copied here:

1. The EU Water Framework Directive - integrated river basin ...
Following extensive consultations on Water Framework Directive River Basin Management Plans should since 22.12.2009 be available in all River Basin ...
2000/60/EC - ‎Introduction to the new EU ... - ‎WFD Implementation Reports
2.    Environment Agency - Introduction to the Water Framework Directive
31 Jul 2013 - introduces the water framework directive and explains how we will work to enhance the quality of water.
3.    Environment Agency - Managing and improving the water environment
31 Jul 2013 - The Environment Agency is the lead authority in England for implementing the Water Framework Directive (WFD), a European directive which ...
4.    Water Framework Directive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for ...
Objectives of the Directive - ‎Spatial management of river basins - ‎Transgressions
5.    EU Water Framework Directive - JNCC - Defra
jncc.defra.gov.uk › ... › European Legislation
The purpose of the EU Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the ...
6.    wfd uktag: Welcome to the United Kingdom Technical Advisory ...
It was created to provide coordinated advice on the the science and technical aspects of the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC).
7.    Natural England - Water Framework Directive (WFD)
www.naturalengland.org.uk › Our work › Water
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) was adopted in 2000. The purpose of the Directive is to establish a framework for the protection of inland surface ...
8.    Implementing the Water Framework Directive 2009-2015
Implementing the Water Framework Directive 2009-2015. NIEA would like to thank the following photographers for their contribution to the River Basin ...
9.    Water Framework Directive | Department of the Environment ...
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) introduces a holistic approach to the management of water quality, and establishes a system for the protection and ...
10.  Water Framework Directive - CIWEM
The Water Framework Directive is a piece of European Union legislation designed to preserve, restore and improve the water environment. It establishes a ...
UK's EPR - Environmental Permitting Regulations

From googling  EPR regulations:

Environment Agency - Environmental permitting "Guidance on the authorisations you need for installations, waste, water discharge or groundwater activities you carry out."

The Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010 - according to www.legislation.gov.uk

EPR-Regs-2013-consolidated-changes pdf

Cumbria's water

Ignore this in italics (reminders for me to investigate):
Haweswater and Ennerdale supply Sellafield to cool nuclear reactor etc, via ... - investigate.
Reduction in flow through River ... can threatend rare species
If a new Nuclear p.s. is built there it may have to use de-salinated sea water.

For want of a drink - John Grimond in The Economist on 20may10 - a long read full of interesting facts and stats on water.