Climate Change and Energy  -  by Henry Adams 
 My web-site HUB page HERE

Some key facts  
     NB: 97% of global warming is of the oceans: GlobalWarmingToOceans < click to enlarge Global air surface retains a much smaller proportion of the heat.
                                                                   Thus when considering global warming trends over the years, don't ignore ocean heating -
a significant intermediary to atmospheric warming.

How urgent?    2016 Analysis: Only five years left before 1.5C carbon budget is blown - Carbon Brief

                            That's from IPCC budget data. A number of reputable climate scientists reckon the "budget" already blown.

GRAPHS showing changes in: atmospheric CO2
& daily update
CO2 emissions & climate sensitivity IPCC 2013 Ocean heating 1
& 2014 update
for 2015

& here
 May 2015
Several together Hansen et al. 'Climate sensitivity, sea-level and atmospheric CO2' near-surface temperatures
Key facts, graphs etc by SGR's climate scientist Dr Stuart Parkinson: 'Climate change: an introduction to the key issues' (pdf of a presentation).

'The oceans are warming so fast, they keep breaking scientists' charts'   John Abraham 22jan15,  The Guardian. "
NOAA once again has to rescale its ocean heat chart to capture 2014 ocean warming ... Some people tried to tell us global warming had “paused”, that it ended in 1998, or that the past 15 years or so had not seen a change in the energy of the Earth. This ocean warming data is the clearest nail in that coffin. There never was a pause to global warming, there never was a halt" and also "This past year [2014], global air temperatures were record-breaking. "   It depends what you are measuring, bearing in mind that oceans absorb most of the heat, whereas we more often look at air temperatures. By the way: Ocean warming expansion contributes about a third of sea-level rises, melting polar ice sheets/caps (not floating ice) another third, melting mountain glaciers another third.

Melting ice sheets, both Arctic (Greenland) & Antarctic, and impact on sea-levels: 'New NASA videos show stark ice loss from Earth's ice sheets' - Carbon Brief 27aug15.

Climate sensitivity to CO2 - are recent estimates de/in-creasing? & was IPCC about right in their 5th report in 2013? - An-up-to-date review by Dana Nuccitelli (10mar14).

The human fingerprint in global warming     EMISSIONS INFOGRAPHICPBL NEAA report etc.
                                                                                                                                                                               Emissions growth slowing down? decoupling from GDP?

I don't apply the word 'belief' to the argument of man as the main cause of recent and present climate change - but instead use the word 'likelihood', and IPCC's "95% likelihood" is an appropriate expression.

Most citable web-page: Unburnable carbon 2013 - Carbon Tracker
  2013's most useful and readable book re tackling climate change: The Burning Question
New IPCC report Executive Summary September 2013
 IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th report AND Resilience website's 'IPCC Climate Report Release - headlines'
The IPCC 2013 report: scientists are now 95 percent certain that humans are the main driver of global warming.
FoE (Simon Bullock) adds to the above 2 reports, re: 'Unburnable coal, oil… and gas.' 25oct13 Friends of the Earth

Is there a "consensus" view amongst scientists, in particular: climate scientists?

Obviously this depends on how you define 'consensus', how broadly you define 'climate scientist', and what precisely you are asking them.

The results of those surveys I link to below show that a majority (or 'consensus' - depending on your definition) of climate scientists agree that man is the largest of contributors to current climate change, more specifically in contributing to an ongoing trend in increasing average global temperatures, or 'global warming' ('agw' = anthropogenic global warming).
Because I have not critically examined these surveys myself with an adequate degree of thoroughness beyond getting an overview, I link to them here so you can assess them yourself:

Bart Strengers, Bart Verheggen and Kees Vringer, 10 April 2015, 'CLIMATE SCIENCE SURVEY Questions and Responses' PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Survey

According to a 2009 survey, 97% of actively publishing climate scientists answered yes to the question: “Do you think human activity is a significant contributing factor in changing mean global temperatures?” PT Doran & M Kendall Zimmerman “Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 90, 2009.

'Survey finds 97% climate science papers agree warming is man-made' 16may13, Dana Nuccitelli, The Guardian.
May 2013: 
 97% '
Ninety-seven percent of scientists say global warming is mainly man-made but a wide public belief that experts are divided is making it harder to gain support for policies to curb climate change, an international study showed on Thursday. "There is a strong scientific agreement about the cause of climate change, despite public perceptions to the contrary," said John Cook of the University of Queensland in Australia, who led the study in the journal Environmental Research Letters.' - Reuters 15may13 'Scientists say united on global warming, at odds with public view'   <<<  my comment: public perception doesn't surprise me - due to 'false balance' reporting by scientifically ignorant "news" presenters and journalists in the BBC & other TV media (see A4 below). Murdoch media much worse. The above quote from the Reuters interpretation of the source paper is a simplification because percentages depend on having pre-defined limits of what data is included|excluded (i.e. % of what precisely). Thus I give a link to the source paper here: 'Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature' John Cook, Dana Nuccitelli, et al. (15may13), IOPscience.

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CARBON COST Price of Carbon
People UK energy Psychology


Answers to a key question:

:   What are the key things stopping UK, EU, US, Canada, . . .  from tackling climate change?

A1:   The ‘capture’ of governments by fossil fuel interests      - there is much evidence for this.

UK government, both its centre and its departments, is riddled with fossil fuel interests - especially oil and gas (USA & Canada - extremely so). UK: Ostensibly in an advisory role but in effect much more (e.g. Lord Browne - head of Cuadrilla - in the Cabinet Office - is a prime example. Extreme conflict of interests! [see my fracking page via my hub page]) Also see A3 below.

Good examples of what such capture makes happen (including that of the US trade negotiator acting in the interests of US "Big Oil" against EU climate legislation) is given in my analysis on the effect of Free Trade Agreements on EU climate legislation and the fracking threat. In the US, fossil fuel companies and magnates (such as the aptly-pronounced Koch brothers [coke]) can and do give almost unlimited huge $amounts to congressmen especially Republicans to finance their election campaigns etc, and statistics show that the amount of pro-oil voting and lobbying and absurd climate-denialism or climate-misinforming by congressmen has a positive relationship with the amounts of money they are funded by Big Oil (Steve Kretzman, David Turnbull et al at Oil Change International ( reveal good evidence of this - e.g. in Separate Oil and State, Oil money behind Keystone XL Senate bill breaks 20 million dollars' & their Dirty Energy Money database). Also big corporations write anti-climate bills for the pro-bigbiz "council" ALEC to provide to collaborating congressmen (especially Republicans) to try and get into state and federal law (ALEC exposed shines a spotlight on this).

A2:   The present short-term returns and the perceived-future-profit-potential of the fossil fuel industry to the financial sector e.g. banks, pension funds, and many of those holding office in government.
I use the word "perceived" - because they are gambling on governments failing to implement effective legislation on climate change.

Effective government legislation on climate change would mean that most (75 to 80%) of the proven fossil fuel reserves on which the market value of fossil fuel companies is based (e.g. share values) would have to "remain in the ground", and finances invested into this gamble - and the associated built infrastructure - would become 'stranded assets', and the 'carbon bubble' would burst resulting in a financial crisis. Thus banks such as RBS are lobbying government to toughen the skin of the bubble so it can expand further without bursting - or at least - in the short-term . . .            They are ignoring the need to deflate the bubble.

A3:   The web of people with vested fossil fuel interests that closely en-mesh these 3 (government, industry, banks) - is well shown by WDM's recent report:

WDM’s recent ‘Carbon Capital - web of power’ displays the evidence with powerful graphics:



A4:  The shockingly bad portrayal by the tv and radio news media of 1. climate change, especially as to 2. man's influence on it. Even in September 2013 when IPCC announced that that they are 95% certain that man is the chief cause of the recent climate change, the tv and radio news media - even BBC - are way back at "square one" - giving a false balance (and often worse than that) on whether the IPCC and climate scientists are correct - or whether Lord Lawson and other denialists are correct, even equating Lord Lawson's knowledge on the subject as being worthy of equal representation as all climate scientists. John Ashton has shown that agw-denialists and fossil fuel supporters Lord Lawson and Peter Lilley have been putting pressure on BBC's Head of Editorial Standards David Jordan (The BBC betrayed its values by giving Professor Carter this climate platform - John Ashton 1oct13) [agw: anthropogenic global warming]. Caroline Lucas is correct that we should be beyond that - and dealing with what to do about it, and others express the risk factor - if there is such a high likelihood of future inhospitable temperatures and weather events, we should do what we can to decrease that likelihood. The result of this huge failing of the tv and radio media, especially BBC, is that the public are being fed a false perception - what a lot of the public want to believe - rather than the evidence and facts and likelihoods based on these. The consequence of this is that politicians - even those who might want to act on climate change such as controlling the use of fossil fuels, fear to do so for fear that the public won't back them up. Mike Berners-Lee in his recent book 'The Burning Question' - has a chapter on the psychological problems regarding public perception.
BBC coverage criticised for favouring climate change sceptics 28oct13 Fiona Harvey The Guardian. My conclusion: David Jordan should be sacked as his views and actions are incompatible with his job title.
Conservative media outlets found guilty of biased global warming coverage 
New studies show conservative and politically neutral media outlets are creating false balance in climate change reporting - Dana Nuccitelli 11oct13 re Fox News & BBC, via Gwen
ACTION: add your views to BBC public consultation 16sep-13dec13: Citizen Space - BBC News and Current Affairs review

There is also much more evidence for points 1.  and 3.  on my website e.g. on the links pages and on or via my tar sands and fracking pages.
I'll be copying examples of this to the present page (or linking here to it) when I have the time.

Former top UK Climate Change diplomat John Ashton gave an inspiring lecture on 'Climate Change, Politics and Leadership in Britain Today' on 16th May 2013 at the RSA. 
(For links to his lecture scroll down to heading 'Top CC people'). I hope this will inspire politicians to break free from their perceived "constraints" of market fundamentalism ideology, tribalism and the corruptive web referred to above. Politicians should have a healthier regard to the fossil fuel industry and not regard it as their master. They should ignore its demands to supress its competition from the clean green energy and energy efficiency sectors, and to suppress climate change legislation. Whether they have the will and leadership qualities to do so though is still questionable. We must not give up and let them off the hook but have the mental stamina to keep up the pressure over the weeks, months and years ahead.

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People UK energy


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"Do the Math":        (quoting Bill McKibben)   

3 important figures:       2 degrees C,      565 gigatonnes CO2,      2,795 gigatonnes CO2,     together result in the important figure 80%:

+2 degrees C
was internationally agreed in the Copenhagen Accord as being the maximum global average temperature rise that we must stay below. This rise is from pre-industrial levels. We are now at +0.85 degrees (more recent update: near to +1 degree). At the Copenhagen summit it was agreed that 2 degrees marked the threshold between 'acceptable' and 'dangerous' climate change, but low-lying island states and other states most impacted such as in the global South regarded +2 degrees as too high a threshold (as the associated sea-level rise etc would be disastrous for them), and climate scientists such as at the Tyndall Centre regard +2 degrees as being the threshold between 'dangerous' and very dangerous'. +1.5 degrees would be a better threshold. Though the best solution would be no further increase - unfortunately not easy (understatement).

GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET for 2010 to 2050 is 565 gigatonnes CO2 for an 80% chance of keeping the global average temperature rise below the 2 degrees threshold.

2,795 gigatonnes CO2 is the global total of proven fossil fuel reserves (coal, oil, gas) forming the value of fossil fuel companies (on which their share values are partly based) and state-owned reserves.

It takes just simple maths to calculate that 2,795 is 5 times 565.

Thus 80% of proven fossil fuel reserves are unburnable if we are to have a good chance of keeping below +2 degrees global temperature rise.
Thus 80% of fossil fuel reserves (coal + oil + gas combined) must remain in the ground.
(This figure reduces to e.g. 75% if a higher risk than 20% of exceeding the 2 degrees threshold is used for the carbon budget)
Also the budget reduces further if we choose a more sensible threshold to keep temperature rise below - such as +1.5 degrees C.

Thus much of investments in fossil fuel companies are a 'CARBON BUBBLE' which must be deflated before it bursts.
Thus our pension funds and savings must be divested out of fossil fuels to reduce financial and fiducial risk.

Research by University College London published in Nature on 'The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C' shows how this 80% is likely to be divided between coal, oil and gas, from which it was clear that:
- most coal reserves (82% at least) must remain in the ground
- a third of oil reserves - which will include most of tar sands "oil" (bitumen) must remain in the ground
- about half of gas reserves must remain in the ground - this has obvious implications on fracking/shale gas, CBM/CSG and UCG.
                 Euractiv's summary of this report   and    Implications on tar sands industry
George Monbiot writes implications of this study to the UK, fracking and the Infrastructure Bill: 'Why leaving fossil fuels in the ground is good for everyone   George Monbiot   Environment   The Guardian
And here is Guardian's Damian Carrington's take on the UCL and related studies: 'Leave fossil fuels buried to prevent climate change, study urges' 7jan15.

REFERENCES re the above:

Unburnable Carbon – Are the world’s financial markets carrying a carbon bubble? - by Carbon Tracker Initiative
- this is highly regarded. 

Unburnable carbon 2013  Wasted capital and stranded assets  - Carbon Tracker Initiative

The Burning Question:  Why can't we quit fossil fuels’ - Duncan Clark -  Environment- The Guardian 17apr13  - article based on the book The Burning Question by Mike Berners-Lee and Duncan Clark, which is published on 20 April by Profile Books, price £9.99. To order a copy for £7.99 with free UK p&p, go or call 0330 333 6846  and Amazon: The Burning Question  We can’t burn half the world’s oil, coal and gas. So how do we quit  Duncan Clark, Mike Berners-Lee  Books £6.99

Big investors
ARE getting concerned: Here's Scottish Widows' Craig Mackenzie (7nov13): 'Unburnable' carbon fuels investment concerns in Guardian Sustainable Business, Guardian Professional. But Craig Mackenzie has played down the threat of the carbon bubble to the fossil fuel industry in other articles.
Ben Caldecott @bencaldecott  Excellent piece by Al Gore and David Blood on #strandedassets in the WSJ. Must read:

Ben Caldecott is Programme Director of Stranded Assets Programme  Research  Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment  University of Oxford

Leave fossil fuels buried to prevent climate change, study urges Damian Carrington 7jan15 - on the UCL study in Nature that divides unburnable carbon geographically - which then provides division re coal, oil, gas.

Al Gore and David Blood - The Coming Carbon Asset Bubble  - 29oct13  'risk' & 'uncertainty' must not be confused by investors. '
Fossil-fuel investments are destined to lose their economic value. Investors need to adjust now.'

Wall Street wonders about 'unburnable' carbon 28oct13 Elizabeth Douglass, Business Spectator, Originally published on Inside Climate News. Reproduced with permission.

A January [2013?] report from HSBC underscored the potential impact of unburnable reserves by estimating that emissions caps and lower oil prices could put up to 60 per cent of the market value of certain European companies at risk. "We believe that investors have yet to price in such a risk, perhaps because it seems so long term," the report noted. "However, we believe it does give an indication of the potential impact on the sector."

Carbon bubble will plunge the world into another financial crisis – report   Environment   The Guardian 19apr13

How your pension is being used in a $6 trillion climate gamble   Bill McKibben and Jeremy Leggett   Environment 19apr13


The global carbon budget:

The Global Carbon Budget - The Global Carbon Project

'IPCC  30 years to climate calamity if we carry on blowing the carbon budget' Fiona Harvey 27sep13  Environment   The Guardian

PWC calculate that at the current rate of decarbonisation, the total carbon budget for a 2degreesC pathway will be consumed in 20 years: I can't read this but Green Party NW England stated what I've written.

Ceres & Carbon Tracker: Investors demand oil, coal and power companies assess climate change risks 'Regulatory, market and societal forces are changing the global landscape. Fossil fuel companies cannot expect business as usual for much longer' - Mindy Lubber and Mark Fulton 20nov13 Mindy Lubber is president of Ceres, a nonprofit group mobilising business and investor leadership on climate change and sustainability. Mark Fulton is an advisory board member of the Carbon Tracker Initiative  Guardian Sustainable Business   Guardian Professional

NB: Even without significant global agreement on emissions the fossil fuel industry bubble may burst or deflate because its costs per unit energy released are rising (e.g. due to diminishing conventional sources), and it is starting to be out-competed by clean green renewable energy sources such as solar - which has decreasing costs per unit energy released, and wind, e.g. 'Onshore Wind Power Is Now Cheapest Form Of New Electricity In Denmark' 22jul14 (ThinkProgress).
Do read this article by the International Business Editor of the Daily Telegraph:
'Fossil industry is the subprime danger of this cycle' "The cumulative blitz on energy exploration and production over the past six years has been $5.4 trillion, yet little has come of it" - Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, Daily Telegraph, 9jul14.

Thanks John Fleetwood for providing this graph from the London Stock Exchange (c) Teleborsa
UK FTSE all share as cf Oil & Gas Producers

NB: also see 'Fossil investment risk from a financial viewpoint' section below.

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Who finances fossil fuels?

Add's CARBON CAPITAL & FOSSIL FUEL WEB OF POWER here. My petition links to these:

NB: it's not just banks & financial sector, but also government subsidies (in the broad sense of the word [not the Ed Davey sense])

Time to change the game:  fossil fuel subsidies and climate   Publication   Overseas Development Institute (ODI).  <<< NB important publication, Nov.2013
"Producers of oil, gas and coal received more than $500 billion in government subsidies around the world in 2011, with the richest nations collectively spending more than $70 billion every year to support fossil fuels."  - "Those are the findings of a recent report by the Overseas Development Institute, a think tank based in the United Kingdom."
Fossil fuel subsidies 'killing UK's low-carbon future' John Vidal 7nov13  Environment
Fossil fuel subsidies costing rich countries $112 per person - 07 Nov 2013 - News from BusinessGreen ODI report Overseas Development Institute "According to the International Energy Agency, global fossil fuel subsidies totalled $523bn in 2011 - almost six times the amount given to renewable energy."
Fossil Fuels Receive $500 Billion A Year In Government Subsidies Worldwide 7nov13  ThinkProgress re ODI report

Banking on Coal - Undermining our Climate Major new report. 15nov13 press release by BANK TRACK. Chart shows UK is world's 3rd largest financier of coal.
British banks among world's biggest lenders to coal industry, report finds RBS tops UK list with lending €5bn for coal-mining operations, followed by Barclays and HSBC Fiona Harvey 18non13  Environment via Gwen tweet.

It's not just the problem of coal's carbon emissions and lethal smog, but also the destruction of habitats and communities by the mega-sized mines e.g. Indonesia is the world's biggest exporter of coal (Australia around 2nd), and UK banks are the biggest investors into coal-mining in Indonesia which is rapidly increasing, and causing huge irreversible damage and pollution: e.g.:
Swallowed by coal  UK profits from Indonesia's harmful mining industry   John Vidal 30oct13  Global development
BHP in Indonesian Borneo  the coal disaster waiting to happen Arie Rompas - 19nov13 – Opinion – ABC Environment (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) "
BHP Billiton has a massive coal mine planned for Central Kalimantan. But local environmental activists are worried about its impact on people and forests."
Also see reports in website.

Carbon Omissions Animation - YouTube PIRC UK 16mar13 Unfortunately it omits UK's huge investment into fossil fuels (e.g. by "high street" banks such as HSBC, RBS, Barclays, ...), and how the London Stock Exchange is one of, if not the, world's biggest trading hub for international investment into fossil fuels (and Osborne wants to keep it that way).
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There is a financial industry very concerned with the prediction of climate risk:
The insurance industry e.g.:

'Insurers must adapt to climate change' "A Lloyd's report is calling for the industry to consider new catastrophe modelling after the harsh lessons of Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy"- John Nelson, Chairman of Lloyd's of London, in, 11may14

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DIVESTMENT from fossil fuels is one answer to tackling climate change:

This is one of the most effective measures against climate change that we can do both individually and by persuading Churches, Universities, Councils and other bodies.
I hope you find the information below helpful.

But firstly, here is an example of what the fossil fuel divestment group within the South Lakes Action on Climate Change Towards Transition has been doing: DIVESTleaflet&posters 

Since starting this web-page section on fossil fuel divestment there has been an almost exponential-like increase in key events and articles on this subject, which is tremendous and a big morale-boost, with even the establishment's Mark Carney, Gov. Bank of England, saying in a speech that we can't burn all our fossil fuel reserves. However this rapid succession of good news means I can't keep up-to-date posting the news here. So join twitter and follow hashtags such as:    #divest  ( from #fossilfuels )    #DivestInvest    #carbonbubble  #strandedassets

'How to get your pension fund to divest from fossil fuels'  Money Patrick Collison 9may15 The Guardian

'Fossil fuels divestment campaign is gathering momentum'   Bill McKibben 29oct13  Environment Guardian.
Bill McKibben: fossil fuel divestment campaign builds momentum - Jo Confino - Q&A with Bill McKibben  Guardian Sustainable Business   Guardian Professional

Fossil Free - An international/national Movement to Divest From Fossil Fuels -  @GoFossilFree     To find existing fossil fuel campaigns or start one of your own: FOSSIL FREE UK
  And divest your money too! -

Campaign against fossil fuels growing, says study Investors being persuaded to take their money out of fossil fuel sector, according to University of Oxford study  8oct13  Damian Carrington The Guardian

'Desmond Tutu calls for anti-apartheid style boycott of fossil fuel industry' - Damian Carrington - 10apr14  The Guardian. Also updates and reviews other divestment actions.

Visit the ShareAction website (ShareAction were formerly called FairPensions - reflecting a major part of their work - re getting ethical/green standards into Pension Funds) "ShareAction: transforming the investment system to serve savers, society, and the environment.DEFLATE THE CARBON BUBBLE   ShareAction

Scroll down if you want info on fiduciary duty (UN use this term)

The next 4 sections focus on divestment re CHURCHES, BANKS, UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL GOVERNMENT & similar bodies, INDIVIDUAL people:


Desmond Tutu: "We need an apartheid-style boycott to save the planet"  Desmond Tutu, 10apr14  Comment is free  The Guardian.

BRIGHTNOW - towards fossil free churches  "We believe that churches need to disinvest from fossil fuel companies if they are to retain their integrity in the face of climate change."   Operation Noah  @OperationNoah   An ecumenical Christian charity providing leadership, focus and inspiration on climate change. #fossilfreechurches UK ·      'Doing nothing is not an option' - Bright Now 29oct13. Guidance pdf for CofE.

The Church of England has a huge investment into fossil fuels, as revealed in an article in Ekklesia's website (Christian thinktank): HERE . I am in contact with Ekklesia on this matter and will improve this paragraph with links etc.    CofE also invest into weapons - if that is less than 10% of the company's invovement: (so 9% OK!) Check if they still invest in GE - which also invests in nuclear weapons: 

I wrote this article for the SLACC-TT August 2013 Newsletter:     (Note: I'm not a churchgoer)
Divestment from Fossil Fuels - churchgoers: do read this, especially if CofE

A great opportunity has arisen for churchgoers - especially of the CofE - to persuade their church leaders to divest from their huge investments into fossil fuels. Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby has so rightly - if accidentally - let the cat out of the bag about the huge CofE investment portfolio - over £5 billion, and its prioritization of profits over ethics. This has given the Christian think-tank Ekklesia air-time on tv to reveal a glimpse of some disturbing facts to the public - which they had released several years ago on one of their papers which I’ll link to HERE. Incredibly, according to the Ekklesia paper: “its biggest share investments of all are in Royal Dutch Shell and BP (a total of £196 million).  In what way is this helping to change the agenda on environment and global warming?” Also it invests into fossil fuel associated banks such as HSBC, RBS, Barclays etc. Do visit the Ekklesia website to keep track of this:

Please take this opportunity while the subject is “hot” to persuade your vicar/pastor to act on this or and/or write to Justin Welby or your parish news or whatever.

Quakers to disinvest from fossil fuels 8oct13 Quakers in Britain.    Welcome for Quaker fossil fuel disinvestment call - Ekklesia 8oct13

Why not tweet (or write a letter to) the Archbishop of Canterbury to urge him to divest the CofE from fossil fuels, such as to follow the example set by the Quakers? E.g.:

Henry Adams @henryadamsUK @ABCJustin @BernaMeaden "@BritishQuakers: British Quakers to disinvest from fossil fuels" How about CofE #divest too?

Henry Adams ‏@henryadamsUK  @ABCJustin Fossil Fuels #divestment campaign is gathering momentum - @billmckibben … When will CofE #divest its£fromFF?

NEWS re churches and divestment:

11jul14 'World Council of Churches pulls fossil fuel investments' "Campaigners hail 'major victory' as council representing half a billion Christians says it will stop investing in fossil fuels" Adam Vaughan
On 12feb14 The CofE General Synod made a first step towards considering divesting from fossil fuels by voting overwhelmingly in favour of a motion to review its investment policy towards fossil fuel companies, but disappointingly
the CofE's Ethical Investment Advisory Group (EIAG) is still resisting advice to divest now from fossil fuel companies and instead regarding it as a last resort. Thus: much more pressure needed to get action on divestment rather than just potentially ineffectual words to merely consider the subject. Further info:
12feb14 'Church of England vows to fight 'great demon' of climate change' Sam Jones, The Guardian. Strapline: "
General Synod says it is willing to disinvest from companies that do not live up to its theological, moral and social priorities'.
13feb14 'Church of England considers divesting from fossil fuels' Sophie Yeo, RTCC.
12feb14 'Church of England votes in favour of reviewing fossil fuel investments' Tom Revell, Blue and Green Tomorrow.
12feb14 'Church of England's General synod debates environmental issues' - Church of England website.
12feb14 'Operation Noah welcomes Synod decision to act on climate change' - Ekklesia.
12feb14 'Christian Aid welcomes Church of England's stance on climate change' - Christian Aid.
Further details: this BrightNow web-page links to the CofE web-page which gives download links to pdf's detailing the motion and supporting text.

16apr14 'Pope Francis urged to back fossil fuel divestment campaign'  Environment  theguardian_com


BankTrack is into fossil fuel divestment. 'BankTrack is the global network of civil society organizations targeting the operations and investments of large, international operating commercial banks'

Move Your Money! Email banks to divest:  - NB: great graphic!

WDM World Development Movement is campaigning for fossil fuel divestment by banks (example action, feb 2014), and is collaborating on this with BankTrack. 'WDM campaigns against the root causes of poverty and inequality. We are a democratically-governed movement made up of local campaign groups based in towns and cities around the UK.'  WDM are highlighting HSBC investment into coal mining e.g. in Borneo/Indonesia. The City of London is a major world hub for investing into fossil fuels ("Carbon Capital"), and UK banks invest more into Indonesia's coal mining industry than any other country's banks (Indonesia is the world's largest exporter of coal). Switch your bank now - if you still bank with HSBC, RBS, Barclays, Lloyds group. And tell them why.

3,4,5may14 Australian bank customers set a great example by doing a simultaneous divest protest action: (copies of tweets)

Henry Adams ‏@henryadamsUK   @straitgateactgp @350 @market_forces We need this to happen in UK. Customers of Barclays RBS HSBC.. need educating to divest frm fossilfuels.
Straitgate Action Gp ‏@straitgateactgp  Australian banks lose millions as customers #divest in #fossil fuel protest @350 @market_forces … #climate
350Australia ‏@350Australia  May 5  Thanks for joining us to divest from the big banks last weekend: … #divestmentday
BankTrack ‏@BankTrack  In Australia, hundreds of customers turned out this weekend to close their accounts in protest at their bank's...   - video 
Market Forces is an Australian NGO using market forces of the public to divest from fossil fuels, and is part of the Ban Track group of NGOs.
Big Four Australian banks lose customers over fossil fuel gamble
Customers switch banks in day of divestment 3my14


'How to get your pension fund to divest from fossil fuels'  Money Patrick Collison 9may15 The Guardian

Visit the ShareAction website (ShareAction were formerly called FairPensions - reflecting a major part of their work - re getting ethical/green standards into Pension Funds) "ShareAction: transforming the investment system to serve savers, society, and the environment.DEFLATE THECARBON BUBBLE   ShareAction

Why pension fund trustees must consider climate risk by Natalie smith - Client Earth blog 24jun15    

UNIVERSITIES have several big categories of financial and other links with the fossil fuel industry that need divestment:

Knowledge and Power – Fossil Fuel Universities - a new report (19oct13) by Platform London, which shows the huge size of the problem that needs tackling. (ref via SGR & Gwen).

2jun14 'Oxford University urged to purge its £3.3bn fund of fossil fuel investments'  John Vidal 2jun14  Environment Students and dons at 14 Oxford colleges have urged the university to purge its £3.3bn endowment fund of all investments in fossil fuel companies. The move follows 64 Oxford professors and other senior academics signing an open letter and a petition by over 800 students, staff and alumni.  The University of Oxford is believed to have the largest investments in fossil fuel companies of any UK university. ...”

31may14 'UK's largest Fossil Free rally hits Oxford'   People & Planet
'Oxford Academics for Fossil Fuel Divestment - An Open Letter from university academics to Vice Chancellor Hamilton in support of the campaign for the university to divest from fossil fuels'.

10apr14 'Harvard Faculty For Divestment - Moving Our Endowment Beyond Fossil Fuels' - An Open Letter - Faculty of Harvard University to the President and Fellows. Well worded, strongly worded e.g.: "Our University invests in the fossil fuel industry: this is for us the central issue.  We now know that fossil fuels cause climate change of unprecedented destructive potential.  We also know that many in this industry spend large sums of money to mislead the public, deny climate science, control legislation and regulation, and suppress alternative energy sources.  We are therefore disappointed in the statements on divestment made by President Faust on October 3, 2013 and April 7, 2014. ..."  And summary by EcoWatch.

14feb14 (Friday) 'Students call on universities to reduce investments in fossil fuels'  The Guardian

UK universities urged to pull cash from fossil fuel giants Damian Carrington  26oct13  The Observer

Manchester Friends of the Earth   People & Planet 23oct13  New research shows UK universities invest £5.2bn in the fossil fuel industry
Universities under pressure on their £5bn investment in fossil fuels
- Rob Edwards 20oct13

LOCAL GOVERNMENT and similar bodies

'Exclusive: Local authorities have ‘conflict of interest’ on fracking investments' - UK Politics - UK - The Independent 27apr14

NHS & health-related bodies:

British Medical Journal launches call for NHS divestment from fossil fuels!  1apr14 - 'Responsible Investment' - Edinburgh University People & Planet - links to:

'Climate change and human survival' - Editorial in BMJ (but mostly behind paywall) 26mar14. @BMJ 2014; 348 doi: (Published 26 March 2014) Cite this as: BMJ 2014;348:g2351.

EA - Environment Agency and divestment: I'm  not happy with all of Trucost's arguments here: 'Environment Agency fund urged not to divest from carbon' 10apr14 IPE.


We can all divest from fossil fuels by changing our bank accounts from e.g. Barclays, HSBC, RBS/NatWest..., and many of us can have influence on our pension investments to varying degrees on what type of pension you have. Australians set a good example in May 2014. Church-goers can influence their churches. ... So check the above sections on BANKS, PENSION FUNDS etc.

Re-invest your money into non-fossil-fuel companies and projects (NB: scroll down for link to my investment web-page).


Example of the good news on divestment co-inciding with the climate summit at New York in last full week of September 2014:
24sep14 'Institutional Investors Call For Price on Carbon, End to Fossil Fuel Subsidies' in DeSmogBlog. Good news - pressure on governments at time of climate summit in New York. The investors include BlackRock, the world’s largest asset manager, Swiss Re, the BBC Pension Trust Ltd., New York State Controller and Standard Life Investments.
Another example: the Rockefeller family announcing divestment of their oil fortune out of fossil fuels.


Fossil investment risk from a financial viewpoint:

'Fossil industry is the subprime danger of this cycle' "The cumulative blitz on energy exploration and production over the past six years has been $5.4 trillion, yet little has come of it" - Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, Daily Telegraph, 9jul14.
A financial viewpoint from the USA: 'Is Divestment from Fossil Fuels a Sound Financial Play?'  3oct13 - TriplePundit - People, Planet Profit.  <<<< I haven't actually read this - but a brief glance tells me it's worth another look.
Former US SEC Commissioner writes: 'The Financial Case for Divestment of Fossil Fuel Companies by Endowment Fiduciaries' - Bevis Longstreth 2nov13  <<< I've only partially read (it's long!) - sounds good

Norway’s SWF to divest from coal   Energi og Klima 4nov13

COAL - the main players (extraction co.s & investors) and divestment possibilities: Coal Seen as New Tobacco Sparking Investor Backlash 20nov13 Commodities - Bloomberg.

Also see carbon bubble section above.

RISK and fiduciary duty

A useful concept-tool to encourage divestment is to question whether account has been made of the risk of investment into fossil fuels, especially what would happen if effective global climate change legislation is put in place that makes 75 to 80% of proven reserves potentially worthless (so too the unproven unconventionals).  Furthermore there is the more immediate risk imposed by indigenous rights (as reminded to us by Gwen on 5mar14) - explained further below.

Also relevant here there is the matter of fiduciary duty (thanks Claire Wickham for that), such as to account for risk:
Scroll to foot of this web-page to look at top results for my Google search under Christiana Figueres fiduciary

More big companies say they're concerned about climate risks Jo Confino 16may14  Guardian Sustainable Business

And here's useful info I've yet to study:

UN: 'PRI: Principles for Responsible Investment - An investor initiative in partnership with UNEP Finance Initiative and UN Global Compact'.
UN PRI pdf: 'Responsible investment and fiduciary duty' - now you can try and find out what UN's Christiana Figueres meant by "fiduciary duty" in her notable speech in early 2014.
See publications web-page for numerous reports, on e.g.:
ESG: Environmental, Social and Governance factors - integrating these into
Fiduciary responsibility II: Legal and practical aspects of integrating ESG issues into institutional investment 2009
A legal framework for the integration of environmental, social and governance issues into institutional investment, 2005 2005
'Responsible investment: The financial case'  by Responsible Investment (Edinburgh University People and Planet).

Immediate RISK to FF investment posed by indigenous rights:
Gwen on 5mar14 SLACCtt FF divestment meeting highlighted the risk to tar sands expansion investment posed by aboriginal protests as described by Martin Lukacs Guardian article earlier this week.  The indigenous First Nations in Alberta and British Columbia and elsewhere have been rising up under the #IdleNoMore banner and recently had legal success in flexing their treaty and territorial rights to try and block tar sands industry expansion (including pipelines to Pacific). This is chilling investor interest in the tar sands and must be frustrating the Conservative Harper government and Alberta government which are both mouth-pieces for the tar sands industry, and they are trying to neutralize the indigenous rights.
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NB: "Carrot & stick": pushing for divestment (by churches, universities, councils etc) is likely to be more successful if suitable alternative green/ethical investment alternatives are suggested, hence next section:

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Alternative ethical and/or green investment possibilities.   <<< New web-page I've recently started.

Reduction of energy demand and thus emissions is the most important and urgent requirement, because simply providing clean green energy alternatives doesn't solve the problem per se: it is only effective if it reduces demand for fossil energy. This reasoning also applies to increasing energy efficiency.

One of the top priorities for investment is (next section):

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Although reducing carbon emissions is the core aim of action on climate change, we must keep in mind that reducing fossil fuel use involves tackling both the supply side ("upstream" side in industry jargon, especially extraction), i.e. leaving most of it in the ground, as well as the consumption/combustion side, such as with demand reduction. George Monbiot explained this impressively in his March 2015 article, in which he said that tackling the supply side is woefully ignored in the climate summits (undoubtedly due to the insidious influence of the fossil fuel industry and finance sector on politicians especially those within the heart of government). Between supply and demand there are also intermediate stages that should be tackled that affect the supply side such as trade and import regulations.

In my web-page on the tar sands industry I focus on one of the oil "feedstocks" which must remain in the ground, and how the UK government has tried to protect its potential import into the EU by neutralizing the EU's Fuel Quality Directive climate legislation.

Here I look at demand-side reduction:

A top priority is for buildings eg houses to become more efficient and insulating, and at the same time to reduce energy demand

John Broderick of Manchester University's Tyndall Centre explains the great urgency for reducing our carbon emissions (which is not being recognized by coalition government policy), and argues that this can be achieved faster by reducing demand (i.e. consumption) of high-carbon energy than by shifting the demand side from high to low then neutral carbon, because infrastructure changes to effect the latter (he argues) take longer to build than shifts in our demand.  REF: Acknowledging the scale and urgency of the challenge we face (1may12). I will add here that emissions are directly reduced by decreasing consumption (and not just of high carbon energy but also of products and services that have "embedded" carbon), whereas building a wind turbine does not directly reduce emissions, only indirectly - and then only if it replaces (rather than just displaces) burning of fossl fuels or 'big biomass'.

It is great that Caroline Lucas MP keeps recommending "demand reduction" and "energy efficiency".

Reducing carbon emissions is the core aim of action on climate change, and a great way of doing this is by reducing heat loss and energy usage by buildings, by increasing insulation and energy efficiency. This is of course much better than building e.g. wind turbines (though the latter are needed too), because it directly reduces emissions, whereas wind-turbines only reduce emissions indirectly - and then only if they replace, rather than add to, the energy produced by power stations using fossil fuels.

We wouldn't need to build x number of new power stations if UK buildings are all properly insulated and made more efficient (DECC have a statement supporting this - I must find it some time). Our housing stock is still very leaky of heat and much needs to  be done.
It would be a much better taxpayers investment than new nuclear, as well as more gas power stations.
But the present Green Deal is totally inadequate (as one might expect being Tory thinking):

Green deal on energy is 'unattractive and uncompetitive', say MPs 8oct13 Fiona Harvey  Environment

The Energy Bill Revolution campaign is a much better idea, and our MP Tim Farron supports it too:  - "a campaign for Warm Homes and Lower Bills"

If you are interested in economics, I have ended my comment sequence on the Pieria economics website with my views on the economic value of this idea and others to insulate houses and to improve their efficiency:
(I must admit that I failed to add a qualifying statement to my "gradually increasing demand and supply together" sentence - as it seems to imply that I agree with the GDP growth model as being a good one or the only one possible. I don't. That statement of mine only concerned help to get us out of the recession - with "green growth" - such as demand for low-carbon or zero-carbon products or services, not for an economy requiring increased consumption of our resources and associated increased carbon emissions. Unfortunately the current system of money creation by banks increasing the private debt bubble has an intrinsic pressure for increasing consumption and thus increasing emissions. We need to have a money-supply system that results in an economy that works for all of us (and the climate) even if growth is zero.

Fuel Poverty: reducing fuel poverty goes hand in hand as a potential WIN WIN with house insulation/energy efficiency/demand reduction.
Yet Cameron couldn't give a .... about either of these 2 urgent priorities:
Cameron's green levy threat 'devastating' energy efficiency industry Damian Carrington 11nov13 Environment
Green Party: Caroline Lucas 6nov13: The Coalition is weaselling out of its duty to help people struggling with cold homes and high fuel bills
Some related articles:8 key recommendations for ending fuel poverty

BREEAM: There is more to sustainability than a building's environmental impact BREEAM doesn't go far enough. Truly great buildings make society better by adding to the area, writes Richard Wheal  5nov13  Guardian Sustainable Business

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A few useful relevant twitterers attacking fossil fuel interests who work against action on climate change:      (just to start you off, I'll add more when I have the time) - excellent resource.

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LINKS to climate change and energy websites, articles, books etc

Firstly: within my dragonfly1 webspace:

2013 onwards:          With the exclusion of * these mostly have not been updated since mid to late 2013.
CLIMATE CHANGE & ENERGY LINKS   except for pdf on: Arctic Amplification & loss of sea-ice - how it affects UK weather

Other related subjects:
FRACKING for SHALE GAS & other unconventional gas extraction methods.  < more date-specific (e.g. news & articles),   My FRACKING notes etc HERE
TAR SANDS    < more date-specific (e.g. news),   &:  less date specific
FOSSIL FUELs other than above - e.g. other bad actions by the fossil industry

Alternative ethical and/or green investment possibilities. *

Archive: 2011 to 2013 LINKS pdf  - BUT only to c. April 2013.    Warning: It's a big file!

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My pdf on: Arctic Amplification & loss of sea-ice - how it affects UK weather - contains links, preceded by a bief introduction to this fascinating and evolving subject

My work on
#2030decarb for #EnergyBill
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Graphs showing changes in:       - this section only just started - much more to add

SEA LEVEL: - Great looking graphs.  There appears to be a discrepancy in the statement here about recent ocean heat storage (over past 5 years) as cf other sources re past c.13 years or so. I have yet to sort this out.

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Climate change websites       - this section only just started - much more to add    is Local (South Lakes > Cumbria / Lancaster to national

SLACC TT - South Lakes Action on Climate Change, Towards Transition    twitter:        Fb:  
SL WDM - Kendal group takes part in Dirty Energy Month 25oct13 (From The Westmorland Gazette) targetting HSBC
Green Drinks, Kendal: Not a new craze for absinthe. You are welcome to come and chat about green topics.

Sustainable Carlisle e.g.

Campaign against Climate Change

Tyndall°Centre for Climate Change Research ®

- Responding To Climate Change - Climate change news, comments and analysis

Reclaim Power - organizations & Global Month of Actions on Energy

Extreme Energy Initiative -  School of Advanced Study, University of London
Extreme Energy Initiative -  A unique academic forum that concentrates specifically on the effects of unconventional fossil fuel extraction on society and the environment  

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Top CC people
and local (Cumbria-N.Lancs) CC people       - this section only just started - much more to add

USA:     Heros's to all of us who are concerned 
James Hansen
(USA),  Bill McKibben (USA), Michael Mann (USA) (hockey-stick curve)

Michael Clare assesses what is actually happening re climate change - the exact opposite of what should be happening: it's simultaneously very chilling and very warming:
Michael T. Clare
author of The Race for What’s Left - 'The global scramble for the world's last resources' and 'The Third Carbon Age - Don’t for a Second Imagine We’re Heading for an Era of Renewable Energy' and 'Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Dependency on Imported Petroleum (American Empire Project)', and 2005: Resource Wars 'In his pathbreaking Resource Wars, world security expert Michael Klare alerted us to the role of resources in conflicts in the post-cold-war world. Now, in Blood and Oil, he concentrates on a single precious commodity, petroleum, while issuing a warning to the United States—its most powerful, and most dependent, global consumer.'  

Michael Klare is a professor of peace and world security studies at Hampshire College, a TomDispatch regular, and the author, most recently, ofThe Race for What’s Left, just published in paperback by Picador. A documentary movie based on his book Blood and Oil can be previewed and ordered at You can follow Klare on Facebook by clicking here.   Follow TomDispatch on Twitter and join us on Facebook or Tumblr. Check out the newest Dispatch book, Nick Turse’s The Changing Face of Empire: Special Ops, Drones, Proxy Fighters, Secret Bases, and Cyberwarfare.    Info on Michael Clare via his post on  Tomgram  Michael Klare, How to Fry a Planet TomDispatch

John Ashton
- Former top UK climate change diplomat - brilliant inspiring speaker - e.g. ‘Cometh the Hour’ Climate Change, Politics and Leadership in Britain Today - Speech by John Ashton CBE to a Friends of the Earth and RSA event, 16 May 2013 &
No UK political party serious about climate change   RTCC - Climate change news 17may13 - speech to FoE “This can be expressed in three words. Must. Now. Can.” “There is one thing we need that only politics can give us. Leadership.”     His speech with my comments: 

Professor Kevin Anderson  - Tyndall   @KevinClimate   Kevin Anderson
                    Professor of energy and climate change - "interested in translating the science of climate change into carbon budgets, policy goals and mitigation options."
                    University of Manchester ·     Tyndall°Centre for Climate Change Research ®
John Broderick - Tyndall
Tyndall°Centre for Climate Change Research ®

Danny Chivers e.g. The No-Nonsense Guide to Climate Science   No-Nonsense Videos 


Mike Berners-Lee - Small World Consulting - on Lancaster University campus Email:   Phone: 01524 510272  Small World Consulting, Lancaster Environment Centre, Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University LA1 4YQ

(Kendal and environs)

Rebecca Willis
- independent researcher and adviser on climate change and sustainability:

Gwen Harrison
- - Free-lance climate change and sustainability consultancy. And other members of

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Sustainability centres/orgs/people/     - this section only just started - much more to add

Of course 'sustainability' doesn't just apply to having regard to our climate but also to all the other attributes and natural resources that we are so fortunate that the world provides us with - which as a whole are essential to the survival not just of Homo sapiens but also of most other species except the hardiest of 'extremophiles'.
The short-term and blinkered mindset of the ConDem government (or - to put blame where it more specifically lies - the OsCam government) closed The Sustainable Development Commission in 2011 but its archive website is still accessible:
    LOCAL to NW England
Institute for Leadership and Sustainability (University of Cumbria)  Leader: Professor Jem Bendell In his April 2013 article 'Climate Reflections at 397ppm' he gives a useful summary of climate changes but retains some optimism that significant action can happen - though it has not as yet. He ends by writing: "We intend to explore some of these ideas at the Institute for Leadership and Sustainability. Which is why our launch in May at the RGS is called “Adventures in Sustainability”  (He had started his article by referring to his Guardian article question: “Is sustainable business still possible?” ).

LEC  Lancaster Environment Centre
at Lancaster University  
2013: Lectureships in Sustainability - Lancaster Environment Centre is making a major investment in Sustainability Science by creating up to four Lectureships with an emphasis on social and inter-disciplinary science: Jobs at Lancaster University ref: A716

Rebecca Willis
-  independent researcher and adviser on climate change and sustainability:

Gwen Harrison - Freelance climate change and sustainability consultant:

Other websites & ref-links

IEA - International Energy Agency - Publication - World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013  Redrawing the Energy Climate Map

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DECC 5942-uk-energy-in-brief-2012 pdf - a National Statistics Publication.   <<< very useful for its summary charts & tables BUT: I wanted to know % sources of gas to UK eg from Norway v from Russia from LPG etc...

Examples of our banks investing in climate change
There are so many examples. No space here to be comprehensive.
List: coal industry - especially abroad, the tar sands and other unconventional oil sources, shale gas and CBM.
Watch our video to see the dirty secrets behind our banks' investments   World Development Movement

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Psychology re Climate Change and Energy Use

See my web-page PsychologyCC&E.html


Media representation of climate change (continued from near top of page)

From Gwen - collated for those who think the "false balance" is a true balance:.

Interactive infographics which show a scientific consensus: the consensus project

And my collation:

11apr14 'Climate imbalance – disparity in the quality of research by contrarian and mainstream climate scientists' 'Contrarian papers tend to be rebutted quickly in peer-reviewed literature, but receive disproportionate media attention' - Dana Nuccitelli  The Guardian.

IBT 'The Environment on TV' - International Broadcasting Trust - report - includes climate change.

TV news:
BBC NEWS - THE BBC IS NOT DOING ITS JOB - YouTube (8 mins, well worth watching). Covers a range of subjects.

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This section is a copy & paste of the top of the relevant section of my pdf of ref-links up to c.April 2013

Global average surface temperatures have already risen by 0.8 degrees C since pre-industrial times.

But most (93%) of warming is stored by the oceans, so it makes more sense to measure their heat content:

Global ocean heat and salt content NOAA  93.4% of global warming is of the oceans - calc’d from IPCC:

*** Three Simple Facts About Carbon Dioxide   Climate Abyss   a blog 8feb12 - this post written by John Nielsen-Gammon who is the Texas State Climatologist and a Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University Sea Ice News and Analysis   Sea ice data updated daily with one-day lag - NSIDC - National Snow & Ice Data Center - NSIDC is part of theCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at theUniversity of Colorado Boulder. - and is sponsored by NASA, NSF, NOAA. And: JAXA Arctic Sea-Ice Monitor (data also from NASA):

The Greenland surface melt story (with tweets) · icey_mark · Storify Storify by Mark Brandon @icey_mark - Polar Oceanographer

ENERGY ROYD -  Changing more than lightbulbs - - about energyclimate change and environmental justice issues at local, regional, national and global levels.

Theory on how climate change affects jet-stream & thus our weather via melting Arctic sea ice & Arctic Amplification Funny weather we’re having... how the melting Arctic is affecting global weather patterns in a sinister way   Campaign against Climate Change 5aug12 

Climate Change: Lines of Evidence videos » America's Climate Choices NAS

Climate change   Oxfam International

Debunking wind energy myths – At a glance - 30 Aug 2012 - Analysis from BusinessGreen 30aug12


Committee on Climate Change  Chairman = Lord Deben (John Gummer, former Con.Env.Minister ),

WHICH Switch Energy Supplier - Energy companies rated

TRADING CARBON   FERN Our work centres on forests and forest peoples’ rights and the issues that affect them such as trade and investment and climate change.

Carbon Omissions Animation - YouTube PIRC UK 16mar13

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SEA LEVEL changeNew Scientist: "Greenland's rapid loss of ice mean we're in for a rise of at least 1 metre by 2100, and possibly much more Read more"

Natural variations and cycles

ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation e.g. WMO update El Nino   - World Meteorological Organization .

More sections to add

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Other contributions to climate change:

US carbon emissions:

Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013
Kuishuang Feng, Steven J. Davis,  Laixiang Sun  & Klaus Hubacek - Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, published 21jul15.

'UN Predicts 30% Rise in Agriculture’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050'  EcoWatch, April 2014.

"Deforestation accounts for close to 15 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions—about the same as the transport sector worldwide. The fastest growing cause of deforestation in the tropics is the clear-cutting of forests to make way for plantations to grow palm oil and timber for pulp and paper." - REF-LINK.

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Climate impact - social costs:

According to Chris Hope: "The climate impact from one extra tonne of CO2 emissions is called the social cost of CO2 (SCCO2). The SCCO2 is very uncertain, but the mean estimate from the PAGE09 model is about £80 per tonne in today’s prices," - from: 'Has the treasury omitted £300 million per year of extra climate impacts from its fuel duty reduction calculations ' - Chris Hope's blog.

The 'Social Cost Of Carbon' Is Almost Double What The Government Previously Thought Ryan Koronowski 5jun13, ThinkProgress

"Other groups have separately tried to calculate the true cost of emitted carbon dioxide. The US government works on the basis of $37 in social
costs per tonne emitted, but two US scientists proposed that the true cost in future health and habitat losses was probably six times higher." - Climate News Network 3apr15.

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Results of a Google search for Chistiana Figueres fiduciary
  1. BBC News - Get your cash out of fossil fuel backed funds says UN ...
    15 Jan 2014 - Christiana Figueres has called on investors to pull their money out of fossil ... of their fiduciary duty if they ignored the "clear scientific evidence".
  2. Fund managers who ignore climate risk breaching 'fiduciary duty'
    16 Jan 2014 - Speaking at an investment summit in New York, the United Nations climate chief Christiana Figueres said bankers would be “blatantly in ...
  3. [PDF]

    Time for Investors to Move Out of High-Carbon Assets Says UN's
    15 Jan 2014 - ... The UN's top climate change official Christiana Figueres today urged ... fiduciary duty to their beneficial owners – men and women who have ...
  4. Figueres @UN Investor Summit on Climate Risk: institutional ...
    17 Jan 2014 - Jan, 2014 by Sean Kidney in blog, Fiduciary Duty, UN ... was the UN's top climate change official, Christiana Figueres, and she was very direct.
  5. Time for investors to move out of high-carbon assets, says UN
    15 Jan 2014 - Specifically, Christiana Figueres called on investors to move out of ... in breach of their fiduciary duty to their beneficial owners – men and ...
  6. Keynote address by Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary ...
    18 Nov 2013 - Keynote address by Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary UNFCCC at ... Like any other industry, you have a fiduciary responsibility to your ...
  7. 01.27.14 – World leaders weigh in on fossil fuel divestment
    15 Jan 2014 - Christiana Figueres pointed to the need for institutional investments to be ... clear scientific evidence, and fiduciary responsibility needs to grasp ...

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Price of Carbon & Cost of Carbon

SCC Social Cost of Carbon    per tonne CO2

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  1. Carbon price - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    A carbon price is the amount that must be paid (to some public authority as a tax rate, or on some emission permit exchange) for the emission of 1 tonne of ...
  2. Home - Point Carbon - Providing critical insights into energy ...
    If you are an existing Carbon Market News or Carbon Market Research user, ... LONDON, May 16 (Reuters) - European Union carbon prices headed for an 8.5 ...
    News - ‎Trading analytics - ‎Power - ‎About us
  3. What is a carbon price and why do we need one? - The ... › ... › The ultimate climate change FAQ
    16 Jul 2012 - A carbon price is a cost applied to carbon pollution to encourage polluters to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas they emit into the ...
  4. Sandbag: What influences the price of carbon? A beginners ...
    14 Feb 2014 - This morning, the price for a tonne of carbon was hovering around €6.50 (the price to destroy carbon with Sandbag is £7.42, slightly higher ...
  5. [PDF]

    The case for carbon pricing - London School of Economics ...
    by A Bowen - ‎2011 - ‎Cited by 7 - ‎Related articles
    The analytical case for carbon pricing. 4. 3. The challenge of deciding on the correctprice. 7. 4. How should a carbon price be introduced? 14. 5. Carbon pricing ...
  6. Social Cost of Carbon | Climate Change | US EPA
    EPA and other federal agencies use the social cost of carbon (SCC) to estimate the climate benefits of rulemakings. The SCC is an estimate of the economic ...
  7. Carbon valuation - GOV.UK
    7 Oct 2013 - This is known as the Shadow Price of Carbon (SPC), and is based on the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC). See below for further information on the ...
  8. Budget 2014: Why freezing the carbon price floor is a ...,-why-shed-a-tear-the-unloved-car...
    18 Mar 2014 - Sometimes, the Chancellor must feel like he just can't win. When he introduced the UK's top-up carbon tax - the carbon price floor ...
  9. The Price of Carbon - Climate Reality
    We've all been paying the bill for years, but now it's got to stop and you can help. Share this with your friends and tell our leaders it's time to put a price on carbon ...

    1. ‎- 3 hours ago
      For one, the amount of “hot air,” or excess carbon allowances ... This will also keep thecarbon price from depressing too much due to an ...
    1. Energy Collective‎ - 1 day ago
    2. Wall Street Journal (blog)‎ - 5 hours ago

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These oil and gas specialists are new to me: